A troika (Russian: Тройка, "triplet" or "trio") is a traditional Russian harness driving combination, using three horses abreast, usually pulling a sleigh. It differs from most other three-horse combinations in that the horses are harnessed abreast. The middle horse is usually harnessed in a horse collar and shaft bow; the side horses are usually in breastcollar harness. The troika is traditionally driven so that the middle horse trots and the side horses canter; the right-hand horse will be on the right lead and the left-hand horse on the left lead. The troika is often claimed to be the world's only harness combination with different gaits of the horses. (from: Wikipedia)


Card with the image of a troika, sent -5.11.07 from ЕКАТЕРИНОСЛАВъ [EKATERINOSLAV], the present Dnipro in Ukraine.
This city has changed names several times:
Jekaterinoslav (1776-1797), Novorossiejsk (1797-1802), Jekaterinoslav (1802-1917, the period of this card), Sitsjeslav (1917-1918, Jekaterinoslav / Katerynoslav (1918-1926), Dnjepropetrovsk / Dnipropetrovsk (1926-2016), Dnipro (2016-...)

This picture and all pictures below on this page, if not mentioned otherwise: scanned about 300 dpi. Then set right and cut out, resized 25 % of this image and saved as jpg.

The postmark, resized 50 %.

Card sent from Kharkov (present Ukrainian name Kharkiv) to France, 18-4-1906. In the postmark is indicated: ХАРьКОВъ [KHARKOV].

Card, sent from Moscow to Paris, 19-5-1905. In France: postage due.

Another card, with more troikas, sent from МОСКВА [MOSKVA], Moscow, 25 VIII 1903.

Card sent from МОСКВА [MOSKVA], Moscow, to Vienna.

The postmark, resized 50 %.

Card, sent from ОДЕССА [ODESSA], 6-12-1910, naar Berlijn: naar Mademoiselle Marie Vogel, at the address of Hernn Geheimrat Vogel (Mr Privy Councillor Vogel).
Message: Christmas wishes and 'Princess and... are in Petersburg. I am in Odessa"

Another card, sent from ОДЕССА [ODESSA]
The first machine-cancels of ОДЕССА [ODESSA], were cancels with eight straight lines. These postmarks with straight lines are in Odessa used very short and so very rare. There are two types: serial 'a' and serial 'b'. More about the KRAG-machine in Odessa on this site: here

Another card, sent from ОДЕССА [ODESSA], 15 XII 1900, crossed-date postmark.

In circular 13 of 5 April 1890 the instruction arrived to use Roman numerals for new postmarks. This happened on suggestion of the U.P.U., the Universal Postal Union. Also the postmarks in Russia change in the 'crossed date'-type. In the middle the day stays first, under it the month (in Roman numerals), left of the whole the century and right the rest of the year.

Card, sent from Riga, station. In the postmark РИГА [RIGA], ВОКЗАЛъ [VOKZAL], station.
Riga was an important city within the Russian Empire. According to the first (and only) census of 1897, Riga had 282,200 inhabitants, making it the sixth largest city in Russia and the country's second port after St. Petersburg. Baedeker also reported this in his 1914 edition Riga was the most important Russian commercial and industrial city on the Baltic Sea after St. Petersburg. The population was already up to 539,000 grown.

The postmark, resized 50 %.

The oval postmark of the Railway post, Riga station.
About the railway stations of Riga: see HBG (in Dutch): Postvervoer per trein in Letland in de tsarentijd, deel 3 / Jan Kaptein, Ruud van Wijnen. - In: HBG 2018 ; 73. - p. 22-39
About: railway post in Latvia during Imperial Russia, part 3
Download the article as pdf
Addition: HBG 2019 ; 75. - p. 40: postcard with picture Riga II
Download the addition as pdf

Card, sent from Riga to Berlin, 18-8-1908.
Troika at the monument near the Mikhailovsky Palace in St. Petesburg. Plakkar: "From Paul I (grandson) to Peter the Great (grandfather)." Created by artist Rastrelli, in 1724.

In the postmark РИГА [RIGA],

The postmark, resized 50 %.

Charity card, sent from Saratov. In the postmark we read: САРАТОВъ [SARATOV]. The card is sent to Minsk and the sender thanks for a congratulations.
The card is sent to"Her nobility Olga Tomilovskaya "Dear sweet Olga thanks for the memory and for congratulation". M. Bulgak".

The inscription in the logo: "for the good of the St. Eugeniya Community"

Rode Kruis : kaarten uitgegeven door de St. Eugeniya gemeenschap / Jan Kaptein. - In: HBG 2005 ; 46. - p. 4-5
About: postcard, used with postmark Mariampole, issued by St. Eugeniys Society
Red Cross charity postcards from the Sisters of Mercy / by J.G. Moyes. - In: Rossica 1991 ; no. 117. - p. 17-26
About: postcards issued by the St. Eugeniya Society
In the stydy of J.G. Moyes this card is type SF 11. Publisher on the right: Golike & Vil'borg

The card was sent from St. Petersburg, in the postmark С.ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [S. PETERBURG], 16 3 09 (?)

The address side of the card.
The postmark, resized 50 %.

Another card, also sent from St. Petersburg, in the postmark С.ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [S. PETERBURG], 8 May 1902

This card is sent from St. Petersburg, in the postmark С.ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [S. PETERBURG], to France. The postmark is a KRAG-machine postmark.
More about the KRAG-machinecancels, see: KRAG-machinecancels

Also this card is sent from St. Petersburg, in the postmark С.ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [S. PETERBURG], to Tripoli, 21-1-1912. The sender has written the date 20.1 and 2.2 1912: Julian and Gregorian calender.
The Russian Empire used the old Julian calender to February 1918. For our (Gregorian) calendar, which most countries also used in that period, 12 days must be added in the period after 28 February 1800 through 28 February 1900, and 13 days through 28 February 2100.
The postmark is also a KRAG-machine postmark.
More about the KRAG-machinecancels, see: KRAG-machinecancels

Card, sent from St. Petersburg, in the postmark С.ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [S. PETERBURG], to Paris.

Postcard, sent from ВЕРКИ [VERKI], Lithuanian name Verkiai, Polish name Werki.
Historically it was a separate settlement situated north of Vilnius but today it is a part of Vilnius city municipality. More about this place: see Wikipedia.

The postmark, resized 50 %.

Postmark in cross shape, indicating Wilna/Vilnius Governorate, ВИЛЕН. Г. Serial number 1. In the 'handbook'only serial number 2 is mentioned:
Pašto antspaudai Lietuvoj = P.O. Cancels in Lithuania / [V. Fugalevicius. - second impression, 2 aufl., 1990

Card, sent from ВАРШАВА [WARSHAWA], Warsaw, 7.8.07, to France.

Another card, sent from ВАРШАВА [WARSHAWA], Warsaw, 18 IV 1903, to France.