KRAG MACHINECANCELS


About 1905 the Krag Maskin Fabrik in Oslo constructed a cancellation-machine. `With this machine it was possible to cancel 600 items in 1 minute.The letters and cards moved along the cancellation-cylinder.
The circumference of this rotating printing cylinder was 157 mm, with an outside-ring divided in four parts: two cancellations and two frames ('flags') (lines, etc.). The distance between two similar points of the postmark is thus always 157/2 = about 78 mm.
An rotating inkt-cylinder provided a constant inkting
After the introduction in Russia (1906?) the machine were used in the great cities (1907-1908).All cancellations were double-ring postmarks.
The first macines were placed in St. Petersburg and Helsingfors (Helsinki). The oldest (?) known postmark is 20-7-1906 Helsingfors.
The KRAG-machines were placed in:
  • Grodno
  • Helsinki
  • Irkutsk
  • Kazan
  • Kharkov
  • Kiev
  • Kirov, formerly Vyatka
  • Łódź
  • Moscow
  • Odessa
  • Rostov-on-Don
  • Saint Petersburg
  • Samara
  • Saratov
  • Tampere
  • Turku
  • Vladimir
  • Vyborg
  • Yekaterinburg
  • Another part of the site:
  • Tallinn (Revel)
  • Tartu (Yurjew)
  • Riga


  • GRODNO / GRODNA

    Cover with the KRAG machinecancel of Grodno. ГРОДНО [GRODNO] is the Russian name for this place in present western Belarus, located near the borders of present Lithuania and Poland.
    In Imperial Russia the names Belorussia or White Russia is used. The Tsar was 'the Tsar All the Russias', Great, Little and White Russia. In some languages (German, Dutch) the name White Russia is used as indication for whole Belarus.In the Soviet period the name Byelorussian SSR is used.
    The Belarussian name of the city Grodno is ГРОДНА [GRODNA] and this indication is used in the postmark.

    This picture and all pictures below on this page, if not mentioned otherwise: scanned about 300 dpi. Then set right and cut out - noted the actual print size-, resized 25 % of this image and saved as jpg.


    This postmark has 8 horizintal lines, distance 3,5 mm. As serial letter only the cyrillic script letter / cursive t is used.
    There are two KRAG machinecancels reported for ГРОДНА [GRODNA]

    • This postmark with month in roman numerals, first date reported -5 VIII 12, last date 31 VII 14
    • Month in arabic numerals, first date 25 10 13, last date 29 12 14
    • Dates: from the articles of Marinus Franssen: see literature.

    According the article. of Frederick A. Brofos, also published on internet, in 1912 a Hansen-Krag machine is sent to Grodno.



    HELSINKI

    Original print size of this image: 14,207 x 9,280 cm (is something more as the postal item)

    All Finnish KRAG-postmarks are bilingual or trilingual. Here we see the cyrillic indication ГЕЛЬСИНГФОРСЪ [GELSINGFORS] , the Swedisch name HELSINGFORS and the Finnish name HELSINKI. This postmark - with eight straight lines- is according Ivo Steyn used from 20-7-1906 up to 26-6-1918. After this date the cyrillic indication is removed. Also a postmark exist with four wavy lines.
    When the postmark is used as depart-postmark always you see the flags: the postage stamps must be touched. When used as arrival-stamp (almost) always there is no flag used in the postmark. When used as transit-postmark the postmark appears with and without flag.

    Marinus Franssen (see literature) has distinguished 6 different KRAG machinecancels,used in Helsinki: three trilingual (8 horizontal lines, without lines and 4 wavy lines) and three bilingual postmarks (8 horizontal lines and two different without lines).
    The trilingual datastamps: Cyrillic, Swedish and Finnisch. The bilingual datestamps: Swedisch and Finnisch. The bilingual datestampsare used in 1918 and later: with the independence of Finland the Russian text is removed, it is a 'cut' postmark.

    This KRAG macinecancel: 8 horizontal lines, trilingual, is used as departure stamp: first reported date 20.VII.06 and last date 26.VI.18.
    Literature about the machinepostmarks of Finland (Russian Empire period):

    • De machinestempels van Finland (Russische periode) / René Hillesum, Ivo Steijn. - [written in the Dutch language]. - In: Oost europa Filatelie 1986 ; nr. 4. - p. 10-14



    Another card, sent from Helsinke with the KRAG-machinecancel.
    The card is sent to Switserland. The rate for an international card was 4 kopecks (from March 8, 1889, upto August 31, 1917) and this we see on the card above to Sweden.
    But there was a different rate for printed matter: 2 kopecks. On this card is is written 'Imprimée', printed matter: 2 kopecks.

    On the other side of this card is to see a view on the 'Sääty talo', Finnish for House of the Estates, in Helsinki. Also indicated in Swedish: Ständerhuset.
    The building is still there, northeast of Heldinki Cathedral, and it is the most striking building of the 19th century in Finland.
    From 1891, when it was build, upto 1906 the building was the meeting space and seat building of the congress of Clergy, Burghers and Peasants. There was a separate House of Nobility. By these four Estates Finland was ruled in that time: Diet of Finland.

    The Diet of Finland, the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland between 1809 and 1906.
    From 1869 to 1906 the Diet of Finland: Nobility 201 sears, Clergy 40 seats, Burghers 30-70 seats, Peasants 70 seats. All the estates met in the Finnish House of Nobility.

    In 1906 the Estates were abolished and replaced by a unicameral parliament of Finland, settled elsewhere. Säätytalo is now for secondary usage.
    In 1906 the Parliament Act was established and in 1907 the first election to the Parliament was arranged. But 1908-1916 the Parliament had not so much power: Finland was an autonomous Grand Duchy and Principality under the Russian Czar.

    Baedeker (1914 edition, p. 226) mention the building as 'the former House of the Estates (...), now used for committees of the Diet (..).' The building was completed in 1891 from the plans of G. Nyström, and the pediment of the portico contains a bronze group by Vikström (1903), representing Alewxander I. receiving the oath of fealty at the Diet of Borgå (1809).'



    IRKUTSK

    This postcard is send from Irkutsk, one of the largest cities in Siberia. Early 19th century, after the Decabrist revolt, many people are sent in exile by Tsar Nicolas I to Siberia. Irkutsk in eastern Siberia became the major center for these exiles.

    In the datestamp of the machinecancel is indicated ИРКУТСКЪ [IRKUTSK].


    The first 2 letters in italic and print letter.

    The serial letter of this datestamp is a combination: a + b -italic or script letters in cyrillic-, the first two letters of the alphabet.
    The machine cancel has 5 wavy lints and the first reported date is 17 3 13, the last date is 4 12 24. This is the only machine cancel of ИРКУТСКЪ [IRKUTSK].



    KAZAN

    Cover to Denmark -arrival postmark of Copenhagen on the backside -without postage stamps: postage due stamp T. The letter comes from Kazan, located at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka rivers in southern European Russia.
    The KRAG machine cancel on this cover is the onle type of КАЗАНЪ [KAZAN]: 9 broken horizontal lines, first reported date 18 2 13 and last date 13 2 18.



    KHARKOV

    Card, sent from Kharkov, in the datestamp ХАРКЬОВЪ [KHARKOV]. The city is located in north-eastern Ukraine. The Ukrainian name is Kharkiv.
    This machine cancel has 8 horizontal lines, distance 4 mm, first reported date 16 11 11, last date -4 10 19. Other known machine cancels of ХАРКЬОВЪ [KHARKOV]:

    • same cancel, 8 horizontal lines, but distance 3 mm.
    • Machine-cancel of ХАРКЬОВЪ ВОКЗАЛЪ [KHARKOV VOKZAL], the railway station postoffice.




    • The message is also something 'philatelistic'. The sender requests transmission of the philatelic magazine 'Collectioneur de timbres-poste' to Kharkov.


      The datestamp is in the older machine cancels upside down. From May 15, 1913, the datestamp is always right.



    KIEV

    This postmark of КIЕВЪ [KIEV] has eight straight lines, serial 'a'.
    The -by Ivo Steijn- reported dates: 3-5-1908 up to 13-11-1921.
    My own items: 23-6-1908, 10-10-1908, and 17-3-1913.
    Another type exists: with serial 'b'.

    Original print size of this image: 14,563 x 11,388 cm (is something more as the postal item)





    On the backside (resized 50 %).



    Three machine cancels of Kiev, all with 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm. Dates from the articles of Marinus Franssen (see literature):

    • КIЕВЪ [KIEV] with serial a: first reported date 15 3 08, last date 13 11 21
    • КIЕВЪ [KIEV] with serial b: first date 28 8 12, last date 17 9 19
    • КИIВ [KIIV], in Ukrainian, with serial a: fitst date -1 1 19, last date 12 7 19




    KIROV, formerly VYATKA

    On this cover is placed an arrival stamp of the KRAG machine of ВЯТКА [VYATKA]. The name ВЯТКА [VYATKA] had this city since 1781 (the old name is then renamed by Catherine the Great). In December 1934 the place is renamed: Kirov, in honour of assassinated Soviet leader Sergey Kirov.
    This KRAG machine cancel has 5 wavy lines, first reported date 29 4 14, last date -2 9 18. Also late used: 6 10 30.
    There is another type cancel of ВЯТКА [VYATKA]: without lines, reported date 23 12 16.


    The address-side of this cover: the departure postmark is not clear. The censor mark is of Vyatka (mentioned in the stamp). An overview of the censorship stamps of Vyatka: Russische Postzenzur = Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918 / A. Speeckaert. - p. 252-254. In this book are listed 14 types censorship marks, also this one: type 11, period ?june 1916-January 1917. Text: Opened military censorship / VYATKA / Military censor no. 220



    ŁÓDŹ

    On this card: a machine cancel of ЛОДЗЬ ЦЕНТР [LODZ TSENTR], Lodz centre.
    This machine cancel, 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm, serial number 1, has as first reported date 15.II.14 and as last date -2.VI.14
    The same machine (same date stamp) is before that time used without lines: -9.II.14 - 12.VII.14

    Lodz -now spelled as Łódź - is located in the centre of present Poland, 135 kilometres south-west of Warsaw.

    Another machine cancel of ЛОДЗЬ ЦЕНТР [LODZ TSENTR], Lodz centre, now with serial number 2.

    This machine cancel, 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm, serial number 2, has as first reported date 18.II.14 and as last date 14.VI.14
    The same machine (same date stamp) is before that time used without lines: -8.III.14 - 11.V.14 In the same year -November 11 to December 6, 1914- took place the Battle of Łódź between the German Ninth Army and the Russian First, Second and Fifth Armies. The city came under German occupation after this battle. And no longer machine cancels.




    MOSCOW

    A machine-cancel of МОСКВА [MOSKVA], Moscow.
    In this city more KRAG-machines were placed. In the postmark we read also ЗКСПЕД. ГОР. ПОЧТ. (ZKSPED. GOR. POCHT.), Moskva expeditsiya gorodskoy pochti, 5th expeditsiya.
    This postmark has 8 straight lines, but the book of Kiryushkin and Robinson shows also a postmark of this office with four straight lines (24.III.1914), six straight lines (27.X.1915) and five wavy lines (27 10 16). With another type date stamp there are also used eight close-spaced straight lines (20 X.1912) and eight wide-spaced straight lines (11 7 16.)

    Original print size of this image: 14,131 x 8,975 cm (is something more as the postal item)

    This postmark of the 5th Townpost office: 8 horizontal lines, month in roman numerals, without indication of hour. Reported dates: first date 26.V.1907, last date 24.X.1911


    Another card with the same Krag machine cancel. The card is sent England in 1908: the rate was 4 kopecks for an international postcard in the period 8-3-1889 / 18-8-1915. For printed matter the rate was 2 kopecks, but for (inland) printed matter -also picture postcards- was it only permitted with less than six words written.

    The nice picture on the other side of this card: view on Moscow.
    On the background the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, contructed in the 19th century in memory of the victory over Napoleon in 1812. During the Soviet period the church is demolished, but reconstructed 1990-2000.




    Card, sent from ВОРОНЕЖ [VORONEZH], Voronezh in southwest Russia. The city is center of Voronezh Oblast. The card is sent in 1907 to Moscow: the machine cancel is an arrival postmark. Machines without cancelling lines were used for arrival marks.
    This arrival machine cancel is also of the 5th townpost office: without lines, month in roman numerals, with indication of hour. The first reported date is 24.VIII.1907, last date is 23.V.1912.

    The book of Kiryushkin and Robinson reports also machine postmarks of:
    *9th town sub-office (29 X 1914)
    *34th town sub-office, serial 'a' (7 1 16)
    Marinus Franssen reports:
    townpostoffices and sub-postoffices: 1 ЗКСП, 9, 34, 1u, 9th, 19th, 6 ЗКСП.

    According the article. of Frederick A. Brofos, also published on internet, in 1907 two Hansen-Krag machines are sent to Moscow.






    This card is sent from Moscow and has the machine cancel 19th ПОЧТ. ТЕЛ. ОТД. [POCHT. TEL. OTD.] Post-Telegraph Suboffice.
    This machine cancel with 8 horizontal lines, monthy in roman numerals, without indication of hour has as first reported date 30.III.1912, last date 13.IV.1916.
    The card is sent to СУДОГДА [SUDOGDA]. Sudogda is located on the left bank of the Sudogda River, 40 kilometres southeast of Vladimir. Vladimir is located 200 kilometres east of Moscow. The governmeny is aldo indicated in the datecancel: ВЛАД &31043., short for ВЛАДИМIРЪ ГУБ. [VLADIMIR GUB.], Vladimir Gubernia.



    ODESSA

    The first machine-cancels of ОДЕССА [ODESSA] were cancels with eight straight lines. These postmarks with straight lines are in Odessa used very short and so very rare. There are two types: serial 'a' and serial 'b'.
    The card here is serial 'a' , 12-10-1908.
    Ivo Steyn mentioned also some dates of use, with additions of Marinus Franssen and so we have:

    • serial 'a' with eight straight lines: 18 8 08 and -6 4 09 (the card here)
    • serial 'b' with eight straight lines: 20 8 08 up to -7 10 08



    Original print size of this image: 14,385 x 9,254 cm (is something more as the postal item)


    Here we see another machine-cancel of ОДЕССА [ODESSA].
    The machines with a flag of straight lines get a problem: the straight lines caused indentations of the inking roller. Then can some lines not (good) set on the postal item.
    Other types of flags are intended to solve this problem. In Odessa the authorities decided to change the postmarks to six broken waves. Of these postmarks we have also two types: serial 'a' and serial 'b'.
    Here we see the machine-postmark with the six broken waves with serial 'a', 16-11-1913.

    Original print size of this image: 14,156 x 9,187 cm (is something more as the postal item)




    On the backside is -written in German- asking for a catalog.

    Dates of use according Ivo Steijn with addition Marinus Franssen:

    • serial 'a' with six broken waves: 13 4 09 up to 20 11 22
    • serial 'b' with six broken waves: 19 10 09 up to 28 9 19


    The postmarks with serial 'a': after the datestamp the waves go first up.


    The postmarks with serial 'b': after the date stamp the waves seems to go first down. The datestamp is set upside down and so directed to outside.






    Literature:

    • Odessa : van twee naar vier machinestempels / Ivo Steyn. - [Odessa : from two to four machinecancels. - written in the Dutch language]. - In: Oost Europa Filatelie 1986 ; nr. 4. - p. 7-9




    Original print size of this image: 14,156 x 9,203 cm (is something more as the postal item)


    This card, machine deperture cancel Odessa with wavy broken lines, serial a, is sent to Kiev: also the arrival machine cancel of Kiev.
    The KRAG-machines of Odessa - and other places- put the cancel on the right vertical: thus prevented that the stamp was put on the message.

    The picture on the other side of the card: the harbour of Odessa. I am philatelist, but this is also a good reason to collect these cards.

    This card is also sent from Odessa, but here is used the machine cancel with wavy broken lines serial b.
    The card is sent to 'Brésil', Brazil, to the Brazil Railway of Curitiba, Estado do Parana. Curitiba is a city south-east of Brazil, capital of the Brazilian state Paraná.

    The picture on the other side: statue of Catherine II, Catherine the Great (1729-1796), Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias 1762 - 1796. In 1794 the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of Catherine the Great.

    The statue in the centre, the picture on this card, is still one of the city's major attractions. The statue on the Ekaterina's square was erected in 1900. Baedeker (Russia ; a handbook for travelers, edition 1914, p. 396) about this monument: "... erected in 1900 from designs by the architect Dmítrenko and the sculptor Popóv. The bronze figure of the empress stands upon a granite pedestal resembling a column, which is surrounded by bronze figures of Prince Potemkin (in front), Count Zubov (r.), Colonel de Volant, the engineer (l.), and Admiral J. de Ribas (behind; see above). The monument is 35 ft. in height."
    At the 1920 it was dismantled and replaced by a monument to Karl Marx. The monument of Catherine the Great is on the same site restored in 2007.



    ROSTOV-ON-DON

    In the machine-cacel on this letter is indicated: РОСТОВ-ДОНЪ [ROSTOV-DON], short for the city РОСТОВ-НА-ДОНУ [ROSTOV-NA-DONU], Rostov-on-Don. The city is -of course- located on the Don river, 32 kilometres from the sea of Azov.

    This machine cancel has 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm, no indication of hour: first reported date 22.III.1912, last date ...VII.1919

    Another postmark of Rostov-on-Don has also 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm, but with hour indication: first date 20.VII.1914, last date 20.XII.1916.



    SAINT PETERSBURG

    In the datestamp is mentioned С(АНКТ) [S(ANKT)] ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [PETERBURG].

    Original print size of this image: 13,521 x 8,949 cm (is something more as the postal item)



    In the datestamp: ГО. ПОЧТА, short for ГООДСКОЕ ПОЧТА [GORODSKOE POCHTA], Town Post.
    This postmark with 8 horizontal lines, with indication hour (?).

    According the article. of Frederick A. Brofos, also published on internet, in 1906 three Hansen-Krag machines are sent to Saint Petersburg.

    Another postmark of St.Petersburg, now with broken waves instead of the straight lines, hoping to solve the problem with the indentations of the inking roller.

    Original print size of this image: 14,283 x 9,559 cm (is something more as the postal item)

    This postmark with hyphen in the placename: С - П....,

    In 1914 the name of the city changed in Petrograd: also in the datestamp the name is changed in ПЕТРОГРАДЪ [PETROGRAD].
    In the datestamp: ГО. ПОЧТА, short for ГООДСКОЕ ПОЧТА [GORODSKOE POCHTA], Town Post.
    This postmark with 8 horizontal lines, month in arabic numerals, without indication of hour, in black, is reported 26-12-14 and this item 5-1-15 (?).

    Original print size of this image: 14,385 x 9,406 cm (is something more as the postal item)




    The picture-side of the card.


    Marinus Franssen (see literature) has distinguished (classification of Ian Baillie and Eric Peel) *mainpostoffice, 1th expedition: 2 different postmarks, both 6 broken wavy lines and month in roman numerals: with and without indication of hour
    *townpostoffice: many different (with or without lines, colour black or red, datebridge 7.5, 8 or 9 mm, month in roman or arabic numerals, hyphen in placename, indication hour or not)
    *postoffice of the Nikolaj railway station
    And after the changing of the name in Petrograd:
    *Petrograd mainpostoffice, 1th expedition: 1 postmark
    *Petrograd townpost
    *Petrograd, 6th expedition




    SAMARA

    Card, sent from ПЕНЗА [PENZA], a city 625 kilometres southeast of Moscow. The card goes to САМАРА [SAMARA] and has the machine arrival cancel of САМАРА [SAMARA]. This city is located



    SARATOV

    This postmark - with a flag of eight straight lines- has a date-stamp, double circle, 27 - 17 mm. This type is used 6-2-1912 up to 22-10-1917 (reported by Ivo Steijn, with my addition). Serial 'a'.


    Original print size of this image: 14,232 x 9,279 cm (is something more as the postal item)


    Another type postmark also exists: double circle 27 19 mm.


    The text of the card: the sender is asking to sent a catalog to Saratov.

    Saratov has used three different machine cancels, all with serial a. Ivo Steyn mentioned also some dates of use, with additions of Marinus Franssen and so we have:

    • 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm: first reported date 24 11 10, last date 22 10 17. (datestamp 27-17 mm)
    • without lines, first date 31 12 10, last date 13 12 13
    • 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm: first reported date 30 5 18, last date 10 8 22. (datestamp 27-19 mm)





    TAMPERE

    The KRAG-postmark of ТАММЕРФОРСЪ [TAMMERFORS], in finnish Tampere, with 8 horizontal lines, used as arrival stamp and transit-stamp.

    Original print size of this image: 14,131 x 9,203 cm (is something more as the postal item)

    In the postmark the cyrillic indication, but also the Swedish name TAMMERFORS and the Finnish name TAMPERE. Trilingual. The first reported date is 4.VII.12, the last date 15.V.18
    After the Finnish independence: the cyrillic indication is removed and only Tammerfors and Tampere in the date postmark. Dates: 3.VII.18 - 3.X.21



    TURKU

    This Finnish place has a postmark with eight straight lines. In the datestamp: the Finnische name TURKU, the Swedish name ABO (=Åbo) and the cyrillic АБО [ABO].

    The dates reported by Ivo Steijn (and Marinus Franssen) for this machine cancel: 1. XII.09 up to 11.VI.18
    The KRAG-machine is also used without flag for arrival-postmarks.
    There are also subtypes:

    • Cyrillic and Swedish indication removed: only Turku
    • With ABO in the postmark again repaired: Turku and Åbo

    Original print size of this image: 14,131 x 9,508 cm (is something more as the postal item)

    The datestamp has date 27 VI 1910, trilingual:
    TURKO, the Cyrillic АБО [ABO], and the Swedish name ABO.

    Marinus Franssen (see literature) has distinguished 5 different KRAG machinecancels,used in Turku: two trilingual (8 horizontal lines and without lines), two bilingual postmarks (8 horizontal lines and without lines) and one with only Turku (8 horizontal lines).




    VLADIMIR

    On this card is used the machine cancel of ВЛАДИМIРЪ ГУБ. [VLADIMIR GUB.], Vladimir Gubernia. The city is located 200 kilometers east of Moscow on the Klyazma River. Baedeker (edition 1914, p. 337-338) speaks about Vladimir-on-the-Klyazma. This name is used in the past to distinguisg from Vladimir in Volhynia (in present Ukraine). Baedeker writes in 1914: "Vladimir, the capital of the government of that name and the seat of the Archbishop of Vladimir and Suzdal, is picturesquely situated on the lofty left bank of the Klyazma. Pop. 39,000."

    The machine cancel on this card has 8 horizontal lines, distance 3,5 mm. The first reported date is 19 4 10, the last date is 14 3 17.

    There is another machine cancel: without lines.



    VYBORG

    Vyborg, the Russian ВЫБОРГЪ [VYBORG] also a Finnish name VIIPURI. The Swedish name is also Viborg. The city is located 130 kilometers northwest of St. Petersburg, near the border -38 kilometers- with Finland.
    Vyborg was Swedish upto 1710: after the Siege of Vyborg by Peter the Great the city became part of Imperial Russia. In 1809 Vyborg is incorporated in the new Grand Duchy of Finland under Imperial Russia. So in the datestamp is indicated: ВЫБОРГЪ [VYBORG], the Finnish WIIPURI and the Swedish WIBORG.

    In the interwar decades Viipuri was the second biggest town in Finland. After the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland (1939-1940) the city is incorporated in the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic on March 31, 1940.
    On August 29, 1941, Vyborg was recaptuted by Finland, but on June 10, 1944, the city is captured by the Red Army. In the Moscow Armistice (19 September 1944) the area became again Russian.
    Marinus Franssen (see literature) has distinguished 4 different KRAG machinecancels,used in Vyborg: two trilingual (type Ia with 8 horizontal lines and type IIa with 8 broken lines) and two bilingual postmarks (Type Ib with 8 horizontal lines and type IIb with 8 broken lines).
    The trilingual datastamps: Cyrillic, Swedish and Finnisch. The bilingual datestamps: Swedisch and Finnisch. The bilingual datestampsare used in 1918 and later: with the independence of Finland the Russian text is removed, it is a 'cut' postmark.

    This KRAG machinecancel: type Ia with 8 horizontal lines, trilingual, is used as departure stamp: first reported date 14.III.07 and last date 1.IV.18.

    On this cover is used another machine cancel of Vyborg: now with broken horizontally instead of the straight lines, hoping to solve the problem with the indentations of the inking roller.
    The cover is opened by the censor and closed with a strip.

    The censorstrip on the other side: via the Finnisch-Russian postoffice Torneo on the border to the neutral Sweden to Denmerk. Abou this reclosing-strip see: Russische Postzenzur = Russian Postal Censorship 1914-1918 / A. Speeckaert. - p. 304.

    This KRAG machinecancel: type IIa with 8 broken lines, trilingual, is used as departure stamp: first reported date 21.X.13 and last date 1.IV.18.

    The KRAG-machine is in Viipuri - now in Finland- also used for censor-postmarks. This type with the characters Д. Ц. (D. Ts.) is used in Wiipuri in two subtypes, according Ivo Steijn:

    • eight straight lines, characters about 17 mm heigh, used 3-3-1915 up to 13-7-1915 in red and 21-4-1915 up to 1-10-1915 in black
    • eight straight lines, characters about 18 mm heigh, used in black 27-8-1915 up to 14-3-1916

    This letter is sent via (?) Revel to the 'Army in the field',
    2th Infantry Reserve Batallion,
    2th Compagnie.
    Rank is something with volunteer. In this postmark the characters are 17 mm.

    Original print size of this image: 14,055 x 9,254 cm (is something more as the postal item)



    YEKATERINBURG

    The machine-cancel of Yekaterinburg (or Ekaterinburg), is located in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe and Asia, on the eastern side of the Ural Montains. In the datestamp is the indication ЕКАТЕРИНБУРГЪ [EKATERINBURG].
    This cancel of Yekaterinburg - the only type cancel of this city- has 5 wavy lines, the first reported date is 17 9 12 and the last date is -4 12 17.

    After the October Revolution the family of the Tsar Nicholas II is sent into exile here and they were executed here July 17, 1918 by the Bolsheviks.
    Between 1924 and 1991 the name of the city was Sverdlovsk, after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov.



    KRAG-machinecancels of Riga

    KRAG-cancel of Revel (Tallinn)

    KRAG-cancel of Yurjew (Tartu)